The Dialectical metaRealist Ṣạdiyqiym of
Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)
Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ-Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl
Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik
“Socialism in life demands a complete spiritual transformation ….” ~ Rosa Luxemburg
Democratic Communist Federation Flag
Social fiction tackles significant issues using a diverse assortment of entertainment media. From a social scientific perspective, the value of social fiction should not be underestimated. The subjects addressed, sometimes cloaked in metaphor, can frequently be serious and consequential. Among these fictional genre is online gaming. Like visual and performance art, such gaming frequently brings to the fore topics and content which are rarely discussed and examined in other lifeworlds. The Dialectical metaRealists of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)™ (MP3), as social fiction, is an allegory for The Antifa Luxemburgist Communist Collective (MP3). Methodologically, the agency of establishing and governing fictional nations will be explored ethnographically (by means of participant observation) and phenomenologically.
This project on Marxism–Luxemburgism (MP3) draws upon numerous critical frameworks but principally Bhaskarian critical realism (MP3) as the metatheory with the intersectionality (MP3) of Kimberlé Crenshaw (born 1959) and the world–systems analysis of Immanuel Wallerstein (born 1940) as key theories. Therefore, aside from the multi–tendency socialism from below, I admire Rosa Luxemburg (MP3; 1871–1919)—who formulated a proto–left communism, Roy Bhaskar (MP3; 1944–2014)—the libertarian Marxist founder of British critical realism. The vehicle of left regroupment, for traversing down the thoroughfare toward a new unified Left, is the Autonomist Antifa movement (MP3) or, more precisely, Antifa Luxemburgism (MP3). Luxemburgism and Autonomism (MP3) are libertarian, defined as anti–authoritarian, communism.
Supplementary currents are: the international socialism of Tony Cliff (1917–2000), the Titoism (MP3) of Maršal J̌osip Broz Tito (Serbo–Croatian Cyrillic, Маршал Јосип Броз Тито [MP3], 1892–1980), the workers’ self–directed coöperative enterprises of Professor Richard D. Wolff (born 1942), and the De Leonism (MP3) of Daniel De Leon (MP3; 1852–1914). Each of the eleven rubrics referenced above, from Marxism–Luxemburgism to De Leonism, have been synthesized, via left refoundation, into The Institute for Dialectical metaRealism (MP3) and the Collective to Fight Neurelitism (MP3). Autobiographically, I have journeyed from the American New Left in 1968, to Titoism, to post–Trotskyist (MP3) international socialism and neo–Trotskyist (MP3) third–camp socialism, to, currently, Marxism–Luxemburgism and Antifa.
Borrowing a term from my old Master’s thesis, Increasing Complexity as a Process in Social Evolution: A Case Study of the Bahá’í Faith, capitalism is a complexification. Briefly, the name Dialectical metaRealism comes from the work of Roy Bhaskar. The term is a portmanteau of Bhaskar’s dialectical critical realism and his philosophy of metaReality. The result is a play on words or, if you prefer, a pun. Obviously, Dialectical metaRealism sounds a great deal like dialectical materialism. Practically speaking, Dialectical metaRealism, while adopting Bhaskar’s work as its metatheoretical foundation, uses Antifa Luxemburgism for its communist tendency (as developed by this writer). Additionally, the variety of other critical theories discussed in the preceding paragraphs are also incorporated into Dialectical metaRealism.
Both Wallerstein’s world–systems analysis and Crenshaw’s intersectionality expand capitalism beyond a narrow and simplistic economism to include other substructures of modernity. In both cases, the amplification is obvious from the perspectival designations themselves. If capitalism is a world–system, little more than a restatement of communist internationalism, merely an arrangement of economy or even political economy would be an insufficient portrayal. If, on the other hand, capitalism is an intersection—or perhaps a web, a cage, or a prison—then the capitalist framework needs to be approached multidimensionally, not dualistically. Due to the contradictions of capitalism, someone may experience power, privilege, wealth, and prestige in one or more areas of life but not in others.
The official animal of Spartakusland is Mimi the Cat (German/Deutsch, Mimi die Katze [MP3]; or Polish/Polski, Mimi Kocica [MP3]) which was, in fact, Rosa’s pet:
Red Rosa and Mimi the Cat
Red Rosa and Mimi the Cat
Spartakusland’s official bird is the metaphorical Nightingale of Paradise:
Nightingale of Paradise by Mīš°kīn Qalām (Mishkín–Qalam) with modifications Nightingale of Paradise by Mīš°kīn Qalām (Mishkín–Qalam) with some retouching by Foster Nightingale of Paradise by Mīš°kīn Qalām (Mishkín–Qalam)
The national anthem of Spartakusland is „Auf, auf zum Kampf, zum Kampf!“ (“On, on to the Struggle, to the Struggle!”). This beautiful song was initially composed in approximately 1919 by Bertolt Brecht (MP3; 1898–1956) as a tribute to Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht (MP3; 1871–1919). The MP3 file contains five renditions. As to the MP4 file, English–language subtitles are included. You may, if you wish, read the lyrics in both the original German and in English translation. Shamelessly, in 1930, the melody was expropriated and the lyrics rewritten by Adolf Wagner (MP3; 1890–1944) into nazi trash. The attempt here is to recover and hopefully redeem this splendidly commemorative piece as the chivalrous accolade expressed, at the outset, by Brecht.
The ruling political party of Spartakusland—a national nickname taken from the Federation’s capital city—is the 21ˢᵗ–Century Spartacus League. You are invited to read an outline of its basic principles and perspectives. If you are a Marxist–Luxemburgist, wholly or even in part, please paste the BBCode (Bulletin Board Code) onto your NationStates forum signature, a factbook, or a dispatch. The HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) can be pasted onto your website or blog. Member, 21ˢᵗ-Century Spartacus League will be displayed by either posting option. Click to toggle between revealing and reconcealing the snippets of code.
💗 ḏik°r (Arabic, ذِكْر, remembrance): Yā Bahāˁ ʾal–⫯Ab°hāỳ, wa–yā ʿAliyy ʾal-⫯Aʿ°laỳ! (Arabic, يَا بَهَاء لأَبْهَى، وَيَا عَلِيّ الأَعْلَى! [MP3]), O Glory of the Most Glorious, and O Exalted of the Most Exalted!
Spartakusland has full religious freedom, but its national, and most widespread, religion, with adherents globally, is the Bahá’í Faith, glorious religion in Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ (Arabic, الدِّيَانَة البهائيّة [MP3], ʾal-Ddiyānaẗ ʾal-Bahā⫯iyyaẗ; Persian/Fār°sí, آئِینِ بَهَائِی [MP3], ʾÂ⫯í°n–i Bahā⫯í or ايْمَانِ بَهَائِی [MP3] or ايْمَانِ بَهَایِی [MP3], ʾAý°mān–i Bahā⫯í; ʾUr°dū, امَرَِ بَہائِی [MP3], ʾAmara-i Bahā⫯í; Punjabi/Pun°ǧābī/Pajābī, بَہَائِی دھَرَمَ or ਬਹਾਈ ਧਰਮ [MP3], Bahā⫯í Dharama; Hindi/Hiṃdī, बहाई आस्था [MP3], Bahāī Āsthā; Pashto/Paṣ̌°tū, دِیَانَتِ بَهَائِی [MP3], Diýānat–i Bahā⫯í; Bengali/Bāṅāli/Bānlā, বাহাই ধর্ম [MP3], Bāhāꞌi Dharma; Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, הָדָּת הָבָּהָאִית [MP3], hā–Dāṯ hā–Bāhā’iyṯ; Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, የባሃኢ እምነት [MP3], yä–Bahaʾi ʾƏmənätə; Maltese/Malti, Fidi Bahá’í [MP3]; Turkish/Türk dili (Bahai İnancı [MP3]); or Greek/Ellēniká, Μπαχάι Πίστη [MP3], Mpachái Pístē).
The Bahá’í Faith was, in the real world, founded in 1863 by the divine Prophet from Iran (Persian/Fārsí, اِیْرَان, ʾIý°rān [MP3]) Bahá’u’lláh (Arabic, بَهَاء الله [MP3], Bahāˁ ʾAllꞌah; Persian, بَهَاءالله [MP3], Bahāˁ–ʾUllꞌah; ʾUr°dū, بَہَا اُللَہَ [MP3], Bahā ʾUllaha; Hindi, बहाउल्लाह [MP3], Bahāullāha; Shahmukhi Punjabi/Šāh Muḱ°hí Pan°ǧābí, بَہَاُؤلَاہَ, Bahā⫯ulāha; Guramukhi Punjabi/Guramukhī Pajābī, ਬਹਾਉਲਾਹ [MP3], Bahāꞌulāha; Hebrew, בַּהָא־אֻלָּה [MP3], Bạhāʾ–ʾŪllāh; or Greek, Μπαχάολλα [MP3], Mpacháolla), Glory of God in Arabic. He was born in 1817 and died, in exile, in 1892.
For further information on the Bahá’í Faith, see:
  1. The Bahá’í Faith: The website of the worldwide Bahá’í community
  2. various Bahá’í–oriented websites independently operated by me: The Bahá’í Studies Web Server, Unities of All Things, the Collective to Fight Neurelitism, Bahá’í Glossary, Bahá’íSite, The Bahá’í World, and The Inner Light Rising.
Although I am a Levite (Hebrew, לֵוִי [MP3], Lēwiy, “joined” priestly tribe), a bar mitzvah (modified Hebrew, בַּר מִצְוָה [MP3], bạr miṣəwāh, “son of commandment”), and the child of two Ashkenazi (Hebrew, אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי [MP3], ʾẠšəkənạzziy, “German Rhinelander,” i.e., someone descended from Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš–speaking European Jews) parents, I do not practice Judaism (Hebrew, יַהֲדוּת [MP3], Yạhăḏūṯ; Persian and Pashto, یَهُودِیَت [MP3], Ýahūdiýat; Arabic, يَهُودِيَّة [MP3], Yahūdiyyaẗ; Sindhi/Sin°dʱī, يَهُودِيَت [MP3], Yahūdiyat; ʾUr°dū and Shahmukhi Punjabi, یَہُودِیَّت [MP3], Ýahūdiýýat; Amharic, ይሁዲነት [MP3], Yəhudinätə; Hindi, यहूदी धर्म [MP3], Yahūdī Dharma; Bengali, ইহুদীধর্মমত [MP3], Ihudīdharmamata; Turkish, Musevîlik [MP3]; Vietnamese/Tiếng Việt, Đạo Do Thái [MP3]; Japanese/Nihongo, ユダヤ教 [MP3], Yudaya Kyō; or Maltese, Ġudaiżmu [MP3]).
As a libertarian Marxist communist internationalist and Marxist–Luxemburgist—not a loathsome neoconservative American imperialist and a Zionist—my sympathies have been for the struggling Palestinians of the Levant (Arabic, الشَّام, ʾal–Ššām [(MP3]) and additional subaltern (MP3) or socially, economically, and politically marginalized peoples. That notwithstanding, I would never condone the establishment of a Palestinian state anymore than I could, in good conscience, support other nation–states, such as apartheid Israel. The solution to the massive demireality, or disunity in difference, of the modern world is not the proliferation of still more national identities but, rather, the establishment of global communist state. It will, I hope, gradually develop, perhaps over the course of many centuries, into a worldwide communist federation or administration.
My faux title, as elected head of state, is ṣạdiyq or tzadik (Hebrew, צַדִּיק [MP3], righteous one). It refers to a rẹbbiy or rebbe (Yiddish, רֶבִּי [MP3], rẹbbiy), the Yiddish rendering of rạbbiy or rabbi (Hebrew, רַבִּי [MP3]), “my great one,” “my master,” “my teacher,” or “my mentor.” Our radical proletarian democratic federation acts as an agency of a hạ–Ṣạdiyqiym or hạ–Tzadikim (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיקִים [MP3], the dynasty ofrighteous ones”). The ongoing relationships between The Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland) and The Dialectical metaRealist Ṣạdiyqiym are based upon reciprocity, However, the Ṣạdiyqiym, which incorporates as participants all adult residents of the Federation, provides it with any required spiritual and ethical guidance. The ṣạdiyq meekly and humbly chairs the gatherings of the Ṣạdiyqiym.
Members of this fanciful, syncretic Jewish federation of ethical monotheism (Hebrew, מוֹנוֹתֵאִיזְם הַמוּסָרִי [MP3], mōnōṯēʾiyzəm hạ–mūsāriy, “ethical monotheism”; Hebrew, אֱמוּנַת הַיִחוּד הַמוּסָרִי, [MP3], ěmūnạṯ hạ–Yiḥūḏ hạ–mūsāriy, “doctrine or dogma of ethical Unification”; Arabic, تَوْحِيد الأَخْلَاقِيّ [MP3], Taw°ḥīd ʾal–⫯aẖ°lāqiyy, “Unification or monotheism ethical or moral”; or Persian, تَوحِیدِ اخلَاقِی [MP3], Taw°ḥíd–i ʾaẖ°lāqí, “Unification or monotheism ethical or moral”) are informed, in their periodic deliberations, by the Bahá’í Faith, Judaism, Islam (Arabic, إسْلَام [MP3], ⫰Is°lām, “peaceful surrender”), Sikhism (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ [MP3], Sikha Dharama, “disciple’s nature”), believers in other religions represented in the Federation, and proponents of various Marxian perspectives, including, but not limited to, those previously mentioned in this monograph.
All Latinized spellings in this essay employ ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Hebrew transliteration, my own extensive ISO Arabic modification, or other Romanization systems. As such, this comrade’s communist alias, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל (MP3), is a hybrid of Hebrew (the first four words) and Yiddish (the last word). Although I do not practice the religion of Judaism, the designation, a version of my actual Jewish appellation, incorporates my father’s and my own covenant of circumcision (Hebrew, בְּרִית מִילָה [MP3], bəʾrīṯ mīʾlā) names. Aside from computer–generated Romanized spellings, any errors in the following transliterations are my own:
I made several translations of my Hebrew and Yiddish name. Attempts were made for these multilingual renderings to be as precise as possible. Yet, flaws in my work may be apparent to native speakers and scholars of those languages. I apologize in advance. The translated versions include:
  • Mūsaỳ Hārūn ʾal-Lāwiyy ʾib°n ʾal-Šādin (Arabic, مُوسَى هَارُون اللَاوِيّ اِبْن الشَادِن [MP3])
  • Mūsaý Hārūn–i Lāví–i ʾib°n–i Gavaz°n (Persian, مُوسَی هَارُونِ لَاوِي اِبْنِ گَوَزْن [MP3])
  • Mūsaý Hārūn–i Líví–i ʾib°n–i Gavazah (Pashto, مُوسَی هَارُونِ لِیوِیِ ہِرَنَ [MP3])
  • Mūsaý ʾÂrūna–i Lāví–i ʾib°na–i Hirana (ʾUr°dū, مُوسَی آرُونَِ لَاوِیِ اِبْنَِ ہِرَنَ [MP3])
  • Mūsā Hārūna dē Lēví dē Hirana dē Putara (Shahkmukhi Punjabi, مُوسَا ہَارُونَ دَے لَیوِی دَے ہِرنَ دَے پُتَرَ [MP3])
  • Mūsā Hārūna dē Lēvī dē Hirana dē Putara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੂਸਾ ਹਾਰੂਨ ਦੇ ਲੇਵੀ ਦੇ ਹਿਰਨ ਦੇ ਪੁਤਰ [MP3])
  • Muse ʾÄronawi Lewawi yä–ʾÄgazänə Ləǧə (Amharic, ሙሴ አሮናዊ ሌዋዊ የአጋዘን ልጅ [MP3]).
Turning to more specific issues of etymology, Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Mōšẹh), the name of the great biblical Prophet, is Hebrew for “pulled out” or “drawn out” from the Nile River. After His seemingly providential rescue from an imminent drowning, He was allegedly reared by the Pharaoh’s daughter. The linguistic derivation of Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, ʾẠhărōn), on the other hand, remains uncertain. The word may, according to various accounts, translate from the Hebrew as “high mountain,” as “bearer of martyrs,” or possibly as “exalted or lofty one.” Semantics aside, Aaron was, reportedly, the Brother or, perhaps, Half–Brother of Moses and the Latter’s minor Prophet or Vicegerent (MP3).
Bẹn (בֶּן) is Hebrew and Yiddish for “son” or “son of.” ʾIb°n (اِبْن) and bin (بِن [MP3]) in Arabic, bar (ܒܪ [MP3]) in Syriac/Suryāyā, and iben (MP3) in Maltese are Semitic cognates. ʾIb°n (Persian, اِبْن [MP3]), ʾib°na (ʾUr°dū, اِبْنَ [MP3]), bin (Persian, بِن [MP3]), or bina (ʾUr°dū, بِنَ [MP3]) are also Arabic loanwords in the Indo–Iranian (Persian, هِنْدُو اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°dū ʾIý°rāní; ʾUr°dū, ہِنْدَ ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°da–ʾIý°rāní; Arabic, هِندُو ـ إِيْرَانِيّ [MP3], Hin°dū–⫰Iy°rāniyy; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੰਡੋ–ਇਰਾਨੀ [MP3], Iḍō–Irānī; Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِنْڈُو ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], ʾIn°ḍū–ʾIý°rāní; or Hebrew, הִנְדּוּ־אִירָאנִי [MP3], Hinədū–ʾIyrāʾniy) languages of Persian and ʾUr°dū.
My own two–part Jewish name, Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn (Hebrew, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן), happens to be Hebrew, but parents can, traditionally, derive such names from either from the Semitic language of Hebrew or the Germanic language of Yiddish. Although written in the Hebrew script, Yiddish is more closely related to English, a similarly Germanic tongue, than to Hebrew. My father’s Jewish designation, Hẹʿərəšəʿl (הֶערְשֶׁעל), is little deer in Yiddish and a diminutive (through the Yiddish על, ʿl) of the older Yiddish Heʿrəš (הֶערְשׁ [MP3]) or, in German, Hirsche (MP3), deer. I have rendered Hẹʿərəšəʿl, along with its German cognates Herschel (MP3) and Hirschel (MP3), as ʾal-Šādin (Arabic, الشَادِن, the fawn); Gavaz°n (Persian, گَوَزْن, fawn); gavazah (Pashto, ہِرَنَ, gawazah; and Hirana (ʾUr°dū and Shahmukhi Punjabi, ہِرَنَ; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹਿਰਨ, fawn or deer).
Adopting a Hebraic–Yiddish identity is, in part, an act of nonviolent resistance. The Jewish Russian Bolshevik Leon Trotsky (Russian/Rossiâne, Лео́н Тро́цкий [MP3], León Tróckij), 1879–1940, was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Russian, Лев Давидович Бронштейн [MP3], Lev Davidovič Bronštejn). Other Jewish communists, especially Trotskyists, have chosen conventionally Gentile “party” names. As such, the aforementioned Palestinian Jew, Tony Cliff, was originally Yigael or Ygael Gluckstein (Hebrew, יִגְאָל גְּלוּקְשְׁטָיְּן [MP3], Yiḡəʾāl Gəlūqəšəṭāyyən; or my Arabization/taʿrīb, يِجْأَل غْلُوْكْشْطَايّْن [MP3], Yiǧ⫯al Ġ°lūk°š°ṭāyy°n). Since Cliff borrowed liberally from Red Rosa (German, rote Rosa [MP3]) 🌹, he is a man I, nevertheless, particularly respect. Be that as it may, I have chosen my bəʾrīṯ mīʾlā over my legal name of Mark Alan Foster (MP3).
American Jews often select common U.S. last names. Feigenbaum (MP3; German), P̄əʿāyəgəʿẹnəbəʾạwəm (פְעָיְגְּעֶנְבְּאַוְם [MP3]; Yiddish), Vyeboom (MP3; Afrikaans), Vijgenboom (MP3; Dutch/Nederlands), P̄āyyəgẹnəbəʾạwəm; (פָיְּגֶּנְבְאַּוְם [MP3]; Hebraized/ʿIḇərēṯ), and Fay°ġin°baw°m (فَيْغِنْبَوْم [MP3]; Arabized/taʿrībuṇ) are proper nouns for fig tree. The Frisian/Frysk equivalent, figebeam (MP3), is not used as a surname. Following my paternal uncle Dave’s lead, my parents, including Harold Lawrence Feigenbaum (MP3; 1919–2008), changed our family name to Foster (MP3; Middle English for forester) shortly before my birth. My mother, née Corinne Elaine Kleinman (MP3; 1925–2004), told me that she and my father previously considered “Feigen” (MP3; German), figs. Given the antisemitic controversy surrounding Charles Dickens’ Fagin, God bless my uncle.
The following thoughts are offered in closing:
  1. NationStates founder Max Barry rhetorically posed the question, “Is it [NationStates] a serious political thing, or just for fun?” He responded, “You can play it either way. NationStates does have [a] humorous bent, but that’s just because politics is naturally funny.”
  2. The German–language question at the top center of Spartakusland’s flag, „Was will Spartakus?“ (MP3), translates as “What does Spartacus want?” Spartacus (Latin/Latīna, Spārtacus [MP3]; or Ancient Greek/A̓rchaía Hellēniká, Σπᾰ́ρτᾰκος [MP3], Spắrtăkos, “Spartan”), a Roman gladiator who lived circa 110–71 B.C., was esteemed by Karl Marx (MP3).
  3. The national currency is mišəqāl/mişĕqál (Hebrew, מִשְׁקָל [MP3]) or miṯ°qāl (Arabic, مِثْقَال [MP3]), weight.
  4. As a tenured full professor of sociology, I focus on religious studies and social theory.
Ššālōm ʿălēyəḵẹm (Hebrew, שָּׁלוֹם עֲלֵיְכֶם), ssalāmu ʿalay°kum (Arabic, سَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُم), sälamə läʾə–nanətä (Geꞌez/Gəʾəzə 𑁣 Amharic, ሰላም ለእናንተ), salām bah šumā (Persian, سَلَام بَه شُمَا), ʾâpa kū salāma (ʾUr°dū, آپَ کُو سَلَامَ) ﬩ āpa ko salāma (Hindi, आप को सलाम), tuhāḍē la⫯í salāma (Punjabi, تُہَاڈے لَئِی سَلَامَ or ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਲਈ ਸਲਾਮ), salāmūnā (Pashto ⨁ Sindhi, سَلَامُونَا), šlama ʿlok (Syriac, ܫܠܡܐ ܥܠܘܟ), sàlāmǔgěinǐ (Mandarin Chinese/Zhōngguó–Guānhuà, 萨拉姆给你), anata–ni–sarāmu (Japanese, あなたにサラーム), sliem għalikom (Maltese), salam a yu (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP), selamun aleyküm (Turkish), tōmāra sālāma (Bengali, তোমার সালাম), salam sejahtera (Malay/Melayu), salam bagimu (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia), sizə salam olsun (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycanlı), asalaamu calaykum (Somali/Af-Soomaali), salam kwako (Swahili/Kiswahili), salutations to the comrades, &☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ&☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ&☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ,
✡   ☭   ☯   ☬   ☪   ⚘
מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל
מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn bẹn Hẹʿərəšəʿl
Hammer, Sickle, and Star Hamsa or Khamsa is a Semitic hand amulet which translates as 5 in Arabic, Syriac, and Maltese and as 50 in Amharic
Ḥaməsāh (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, חַמְסָה‬),
H̱am°saẗ (Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, خَمْسَة),
Häməsa (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, ሀምሳ),
Ḥamšā (Syriac/Suryāyā, ܚܡܫܐ),
or Ħamsa (Maltese/Malti),
A Semitic Hand Amulet.”
Not Related to “Hamṣa” (Sanskrit/
Saṃskrtam, हंस
), Swan or Goose.”
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